The SLS rocket, intended for flights to the moon, achieved 90% of its goals during a critical test by NASA

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Scientific bulletin titles: – A rare petrified forest identified by geologists in Brazil – The European Patent Office awards its annual awards to promising researchers, including young people under the age of 30 – The SLS rocket for flights to the moon achieved 90% of its goals during a critical test conducted by NASA

Petrified forest trunks discovered in southern Brazil will open a ‘window into the past’ to study plant evolution.

During geological studies that preceded the planning of a route to the factory at the end of 2018, a petrified forest of 164 trees appeared inside the rocks in the city of Ortigueira, in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. These trees belong to a previously extinct class, which is “the most important in the southern hemisphere”, in terms of the quantity and quality of conservation. The class of fossilized trees found in Brazil is called lycophytes, meaning they are trees devoid of flowers, fruits and seeds, and they date back to 290 million years, before the appearance of dinosaurs. Therefore, the discovery of petrified trees in Brazil has great symbolism, since they represent very primitive life forms in the history of the Earth.

Similar rare finds have previously been reported in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul or in Argentine Patagonia, but on a much smaller scale.

Brazilian geologist Thammy Mottin explained that the factor that allowed the petrified forest in Brazil to be preserved in this exceptional way is that the trees were “buried when they were still alive, and then gradually covered by sediments, so that the forest remained almost unchanged after it was inundated by a frozen river.”

The European Patent Office awarded its prizes to the best inventors for the year 2022. What innovative research projects have been awarded?

This year, the European Patent Office (EPO) has highlighted young researchers under the age of 30 for the first time. He awarded an equal prize to a Belgian-British team for a technology for waste sorting and recycling using artificial intelligence. The office rewarded 22-year-old Erin Smith for an application that she created to recognize faces and also uses artificial intelligence to monitor Parkinson’s disease and monitor its warning signs from the start.

More than half of the 13 research teams that qualified for the final this year worked on topics related to the clean energy transition for the climate. Canadian-American chemist Donald Sadoway snatched the “Non-European Patent Office” award for his liquid metal batteries to store renewable energies.

In the “Industry” category, an Estonian team consisting of Jaan Leis, Mati Arulepp and Anti Perkson received the award for creating high-quality, carbon-based materials used within energy storage capacitors known as Super capacitors. The Estonian team has improved curved graphene for use as an electrode, providing fast-charging and long-lasting power sources for both industry and electric vehicles.

In the “Research” category, the European Patent Office (EPO) honored the French chemist Claude Griso with the Best Inventor Award, who dedicated her research to phyto-environmental stimulants made from invasive plants that allow decontamination of mining soils by plants feeding on minerals.

The “Small and Medium Enterprises” award went to the French immunologist Elodie Belnoue and the Swiss engineer Madiha Derouazi. These two researchers established in the field of biotechnology a new medical platform for the manufacture of therapeutic vaccines against different types of cancer. This platform was named Amal Therapeutics plateform.

The critical test of a rocket that NASA will fly to the Moon on all three Artemis missions has been a success.

The fourth attempt to test the SLS missile achieved about 90 percent of its goals, NASA officials said. But the date of sending this missile to the lunar ocean has not yet been determined. The fourth test of the SLS missile revolved around a set of measures, ranging from filling the missile tanks with liquid fuel and starting the countdown to takeoff, in addition to simulating unexpected events and then emptying the tanks.

We note here that this test is the last that the agency is supposed to organize before the launch of the “Artemis 1” space mission scheduled for this summer without the participation of astronauts, and to be followed by a manned capsule that is not expected to be launched before 2026.

The SLS rocket is 98 meters long, higher than the Statue of Liberty, but slightly lower than the Saturn V rocket that was used to send humans to the moon during the Apollo missions.

The “Artemis 1” mission aims to preview the hidden part of the moon in a test flight expected this summer. The capsule of the “Artemis 2” mission, manned by astronauts, will orbit the moon without landing on it. For the “Artemis 3” mission, it will feature the first woman and first person of color, both of whom will land on the south side of the moon.

Just for information, NASA aspires to establish a permanent presence on the moon, which will be used as an experimental stage for the technologies needed for a trip to Mars scheduled for the 2030s.